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超实用的学术写作转折用语

2018 / 11 / 30

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问题:

我在撰写英文论文时,时常找不到恰当的用来起承转合章节或不同主题的表达方法。

请问是否能提供一些这类的承上启下的实用技巧?

—华乐丝收到的电子邮件询问

回答:

在撰写研究或学位论文时,文中的承上启下的段落就如同一张“领航地图”,引领读者进入一个未知的地带,进行探索。好的承上启下可以使文章脉络清晰、有条理,读者才容易领会。承上启下的技巧之一是使用所谓的转折语,以下列出一些实用的转折句型及例句:

 

  • 预示章节内容

The purpose of this chapter is to review the literature on X. It begins by…

(本章旨在回顾关于X的文献。首先……)

 

This introductory section provides a brief overview of… It then goes on to…

(本章先针对……进行简短回顾,接着……)

 

This part of the thesis discusses the findings which emerged from the statistical analysis presented in the previous chapter.

(本章将探讨前一章统计分析得出的发现。)

 

This chapter describes and discusses the methods used in this investigation. The first section… The second part moves on to describe in greater detail the…

(本章旨在说明与讨论研究方法。第一节……,第二节进一步阐述……)

 

The final chapter of this dissertation is divided into two parts. The first…

(本研究的最后一章分为两部分。第一部分……)

 

This chapter is divided into four main sections, each of which presents the results relating to one of the research questions.

(本章分成四小节,各节分别呈现与研究问题相关的结果。)

 

The structure and biological functions of Xs will be discussed in the forthcoming sections.

(下几节将探讨Xs的结构与生物学功能。)

 

 

  • 预告新主题或观点

Regarding X, …(关于X,……)

 

As regards X, …(至于X,……)

 

In terms of X, …(在X方面,……)

 

In the case of X …(在X的例子中,……)

 

With regard to X, …(对于X,……)

 

With respect to X, …(有关X,……)

 

As far as X is concerned, …(就X而言,……)

 

 

  • 提及前述主题

As discussed above, …(如上所述,……)

 

As explained earlier, …(如前所述,……)

 

As described on the previous page, …(如上一页所述,……)

 

As was mentioned in the previous chapter, …(如上一章所述,……)

 

As explained in the introduction, it is clear that…(如本文前言所述,显然,……)

 

As was pointed out in the introduction to this paper, …(如本文前言所说,……)

 

Returning briefly to the subject/issue of X, …(简短回顾关于X的主题/议题,……)

 

 

  • 承接下一段落

Turning now to the experimental evidence on…

(接下来探讨关于……的实验证明)

 

Before proceeding to examine X, it will be necessary to…

(检视X以前,必须要先……)

 

Before employing these theories to examine X, it is necessary to…

(使用这些理论来检视X以前,必须要先……)

 

So far this paper/chapter has focused on X. The following section will discuss…

(目前本文/本章着重探讨X。下一章将讨论……)

 

Having defined what is meant by X, I will now move on to discuss…

(说明X的定义后,将下来讨论……)

 

This chapter follows on from the previous chapter, which examined/laid out/outlined X.

(本章接续上一章的主题,继续检视/阐述/叙述X。)

 

This chapter has demonstrated that… It is now necessary to explain the course of…

(本章已陈述……。以下将说明……)

 

Having discussed how to construct X, the final section of this paper addresses ways of…

(讨论完如何建构X后,本文最后一节将阐释如何……)

 

This section has analyzed the causes of X and has argued that… The next part of this paper…

(本节已分析造成X的因素,并主张……。下一节将……)

 

 

  • 承接下一段落,同时加入新信息、提出对照或表示反面意见

In addition, it is important to ask…

(此外,务必要询问……)

 

On the other hand, in spite of much new knowledge about the role of…,

(另一方面,尽管有许多关于……的新知识,)

 

However, this system also has a number of serious drawbacks.

(然而,此系统仍存有许多严重缺陷。)

 

Despite this, little progress has been made in the…

(尽管如此,在……方面仍略有进展。)

 

 

  • 预告下一章节内容

The following is a brief report on a…

(以下将简单报告……)

 

What follows is a description/outline/account of…

(以下将说明/阐述/介绍……)

 

In the section that follows, it will be argued that…

(下一节将讨论……)

 

The problem of X is discussed in the following section.

(下一节将探讨X的问题。)

 

The next chapter describes synthesis and evaluation of…

(下一章将说明……的整合与评估。)

 

This raises questions about X which will be discussed in the next chapter.

(本章有关X的问题,将于下一章中进一步讨论。)

 

用于提出研究结果与讨论的转折语
Turning now to the experimental evidence on…

(接着讨论关于……的实验证明)

 

Comparing the two results, it can be seen that…

(比较这两个结果后,发现……)

 

A comparison of the two results reveals…

(比较这两个结果发现……)

 

As pointed out in the introduction to this paper, …

(如本文前言所述……)

 

From the previous discussion, it can be seen that…

(从前面的讨论来看,可发现……)

 

It is also worth noting that X is significantly more frequent in…

(值得一提的是,X在……的频率明显更高。)

 

The differences between X and Y are highlighted in Table 4.

(表4凸显出X与Y之间的差别。)

 

 

  • 重点回顾与转折用语

This section has reviewed the three key aspects of…

(本节已回顾……的三大面向。)

 

This chapter has described the methods used in this investigation and it has…

(本章已描述在此研究中的方法以及……)

 

In this section, it has been explained that… The chapter that follows moves on to consider the…

(本节已解释……,下一章将探讨……)

 

This chapter began by describing X and arguing that… It went on to suggest that the… The next chapter describes the procedures and methods used in this investigation.

(本章首先描述X并强调……。接着讨论……,下一章将介绍研究过程与方法。)

 

These analytical procedures and the results obtained from them are described in the next chapter.

(下一章将说明分析过程与结果。)

 

A summary of the main findings and of the principal issues and suggestions which have arisen in this discussion are provided in the next chapter, which…

(下一章将简述在本节中所讨论的主要研究发现、问题与建议……)

 

In the next section, I will present some of the findings of my empirical research on the impact of…

(下一节将探讨本实验研究对于……影响的某些发现。)

 

无端遭人指控涉嫌学术造假,该怎么办?
我该发表负面研究结果吗?这是否会影响我的科研生涯?