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七个表达精准的学术写作词汇,让语意更加清楚明了

2017 / 12 / 15

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1. Craft
解释:(动词)精巧或细心地创造或制作某个物品
可用来取代:make、produce、write
当您欲表达某人produce a speech或write a story时,也可以改用craft这个单词。

例句:
The speaker crafts his lecture by including a myriad of allusions to other salient speeches.

She crafted a strategy to boost the company’s earnings.

2. Substantiate
解释:(动词)提供证据以证明或支持
可用来取代:prove
撰写分析研究的时候,您很可能会使用substantiate来证明某件事。

例句:
He substantiated his claim to local mountaineering fame with a photo of himself on the summit of Mt. Everest.

3. Caustic
解释:(形容词)对有机组织具化学腐蚀性的
可用来取代:mean、harsh
如欲陈述某人的语调十分挑衅、讽刺、无理,可以使用caustic这个精确的单词。

例句:
It was Schuyler’s gift for satire and his caustic wit that distinguished his writings and led to his nickname, the Black Mencken.—Henry Louis Gates, Jr., New York Times Book Review, 20 Sept. 1992

4. Elucidate
解释:(动词)阐明
可用来取代:explain

例句:
While writing, you’ll be doing some elucidating often complex ideas.

When asked for details, he declined to elucidate further.

5. Esoteric
解释:(形容词)此字意指仅被某一小群专业知识人士所理解的或感兴趣的
可用来取代:obscure
一般来说,esoteric这个字很少被用到,因此未必能完全取代某个单词,但它确实能夠精准表达某些难以解释的事物。

例句:
… he listens to a group of Malaysians playing reedy, plangent music on some esoteric kind of wind instrument. —Penelope Lively, City of the Mind, 1991

6. Tenuous
解释:(形容词)纤细的;脆弱无力的
可用来取代:weak、fragile

例句:
The authors follow researchers as they use the slimmest leads and the most tenuous connections to track the genes for Huntington’s disease, muscular dystrophy, schizophrenia and a host of other physical and mental miseries. —Natalie Angier, New York Times Book Review, 12 Aug. 1990

7. Perfunctory
解释:(形容词)敷衍的;马虎的。
可用来取代:hasty、careless。
我知道您当然在写作上从未马虎过,但当您在进行团队作业时,一定曾想过自己的伙伴有多敷衍了事,此时就可以用perfunctory这个单词表达。

例句:
You probably don’t want to know how perfunctory was the presentation of the state’s evidence, how tenth-rate was the performance of the court-appointed defense or how wretched was the end. —Christopher Hitchens, Nation, 23-30 Aug. 1999

 

 

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