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如何在英语写作中使用平行结构

2018 / 11 / 9

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问题:

论文审稿意见中,期刊辑对我的论文提出不少关于平行结构的意见。请问何谓英语句子的“平行结构”?

— 某大学管理学院硕士生

 

回答:

平行结构是指以相同语法结构呈现多个对等的概念。这种写作的手法涉及到文法、风格、修辞与内容。若使用得宜,不仅可以增进读者对于句意理解,而且可以增添文章的文采。

  • Do unto others as you would have others do unto you.(你想要别人怎么对待你,便要先怎么对待别人。)
  • Some say the world will end in fire, Some say in ice.(有人说世界将终结于烈火,有人说终结于冰封。)

以下是需要修改成平行结构的例句:


例句一:

While it was raining, I had to run into the grocery store, the dry cleaners, and stop at the bookstore.

上句中三个对等的概念中,两个使用了谓语+宾语结构,而一个省略了谓语,所以这个句子并未采用平行结构。若在省略谓语的位置加上duck into,句子便产生出平行结构:While it was raining, I had to run into the grocery store, duck into the dry cleaners, and stop at the bookstore.(下雨的时候,我只好跑进杂货店、躲进干洗店、停留在书店。)

另一个修改方式是将原句中的stop at删去:While it was raining, I had to run into the grocery store, the dry cleaners, and the bookstore.(下雨的时候,我只好跑进杂货店、干洗店、书店。)


例句二:

The test was long and requiring skills we hadn’t learned.

这个句子没有采用平行结构,而是以不同的语法形式来呈现两个对等概念。将其改为平行结构句子:

The test was long and required skills we hadn’t learned.(这个考试需要很长时间,而且需要用到一些还没学到的技术。)

对于成对概念或列举项目而言(如上述两个例句所示),使用时务必留意是否符合平行结构的句型。切记平行结构中冠词(the、a、an)与介词(by、for、of、on、to)也须对称。

 

 

  • 成对概念的平行句构

在英语句子中,成对的概念通常会使用比较句型(如easier than、as much as、bigger than)、对等连接词(如and、but、for、nor、or、so、yet),以及相关连接词(如both…and、either…or、just as…so、neither…nor、not…but、not only…but also、whether…or)。以下列出一些平行结构常见错误的范例。请注意每句可以有不止一种的改法。


例句一
(比较句型):

Our neighbor’s house is bigger than the size of our house.

参考改法:

Our neighbor’s house is bigger than our house.
(邻居家比我们家还大。)

或是

The size of our neighbor’s house is bigger than the size of our house.
(邻居家的大小比我们家还大。)


例句二
(对等连接词)

Shou-bi, my crazy dog loves running after Frisbees and plays with leaves.

参考改法:

Shou-bi, my crazy dog, loves running after Frisbees and playing with leaves.
(我的小疯狗瘦比喜欢追着飞盘跑和玩树叶。)

或是

Shou-bi, my crazy dog, loves to run after Frisbees and to play with leaves.
(我的小疯狗瘦比喜欢追着飞盘跑和玩树叶。)


例句三
(相关连接词):

Not only was he rude, but also ate all the shrimp balls.

参考改法:

Not only was he rude, but also he ate all the shrimp balls.
(他不只没礼貌,还吃光所有的虾球。)

或是

Not only was he rude, but he also ate all the shrimp balls.
(他不只没礼貌,还吃光所有的虾球。)

 

 

  • 列举项目的平行结构

列举项目不仅包含镶嵌在句子中的平行概念,也包括号式或点列式的项目列举。若要检查某文句是否符合号式或点列式平行结构,方式之一是:找到第一个列举项目之前的句干,使用这个句干逐一搭配所有的列举项目,若所用列举项目均能搭配该句干,则确认符合平行结构的条件。

例句:

After I get off work, I’m driving to the gym, running five miles, and weights.

  1. 找出第一个列举项目之前的句干:After I get off work, I’m…
  2. 确认句干可以搭配第一个项目:After I get off work, I’m driving to the gym.
  3. 确认句干可以搭配第二个项目:After I get off work, I’m running five miles.
  4. 句干无法搭配第三个项目:After I get off work, weights.
  5. 修正为平行结构:After I get off work, I’m driving to the gym, running five miles, and lifting weights.(下班后,我要开车去健身房、跑个五英哩和练举重。)
  6. 确认句干可以搭配第三个项目(After I get off work, I’m lifting weights.)

例句一(镶嵌在句子中的平行概念):

On Saturday, my roommates and I are playing in a game of basketball, collecting coats for charity, work on our homework for three hours, and go to a party in the Village.

参考改法:

On Saturday, my roommates and I are going to play in a game of basketball, collect coats for charity, spend three hours on homework, and go to a party in the Village.
(星期六我跟室友打算去打篮球、收集衣服拿去捐赠、花三小时写作业和参加村里的派对。)

或是

On Saturday, my roommates and I are playing in a game of basketball, collecting coats for charity, spending three hours on homework, and going to a party in the Village.
(星期六我跟室友打算去打篮球、收集衣服拿去捐赠、花三小时写作业和参加村里的派对。)


例句二
(列举项目):

The people I have met since starting college include the following:

Mei-ing Zhang

Joe Chen, a guy from the Taipei area

Adam Lu and Donna Liu

Ian Yang from Hong Kong

and Jason Li, whom I met in math class

参考改法:

The people I have met since starting college include the following:

Mei-ing Zhang

Joe Chen

Adam Lu

Donna Liu

Ian Yang

Jason Li

或是

The people I have met since starting college include the following:

Mei-ing Chang from near Taichung

Joe Chen from the Taipei area

Adam Lu from Hsinchu

Donna Liu from Hsinchu

Ian Yang from Hong Kong

Jason Li from Morris, Indiana

 

 

  • 利用平行结构

若将重大或意想不到的项目放在最后,常常更能吸引读者的关注。留意以下两个例句的不同。

将重大的项目摆在最后:
In the accident, he received cuts on his face, a mild concussion, a cracked rib, and a ruptured spleen.
(那场意外使他脸部割伤、轻度脑震荡、肋骨断裂、脾脏破裂。)

将重大的项目摆在中间:
In the accident, he received cuts on his face, a ruptured spleen, a cracked rib, and a mild concussion.
(那场意外使他脸部割伤、脾脏破裂、肋骨断裂、轻度脑震荡。)

使用相同或并列的词汇来搭配所比较的概念,可以加强比较的效果。

使用相同词汇:
It’s unusual to feel intense attraction and intense repulsion for the same person.
(对某个人同时怀抱强烈的爱与恨是不太寻常的事情。)

使用并列词汇:
You always seem to run to guitar lessons and crawl to piano lessons.
(你总是快步跑去上吉他课,再缓步走去上钢琴课。)

 

  • 平行结构的重点回顾

1. 平行结构的句型是指以相同语法形式来呈现多个对等概念或列举项目

2. 平行结构是一种修辞或写作风格,可以有效突出重要概念。

3. 英语句子中的成对概念应该要采用平行结构的句型。

4. 无论是镶嵌在句子中的多个概念,或是逐条列举的项目,两者都应采用平行结构的句型。

5. 在多数情况下,将句子或列举项目可以有不止一种平行结构的呈现方式。

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